With the growing popularity of information technology, safely storing digital data is a major modern concern. There are many options for such storage, including flash drives, hard drives, CDs, DVDs, SD cards, etc. Due to the advantages of a high storage capacity and long lifespan, hard drives are usually the first choice as a storage space. While hard drive storage is often safe and reliable, it is always wise to back up your data onto another drive as a precautionary measure. When you are looking to clone the contents of any hard drive, the easiest approach is to use a hard drive duplicator. For your better understanding, this blog will explore how hard drive duplicators work and when to use them.
A hard drive duplicator, unlike a physical hard drive, is not used to store data, but rather to duplicate and transfer data from one device to another. Similar in structure to a CD player, your storage devices are inserted into the hard drive duplicator during use. The duplicator then performs the function of cloning the information on the first device and transferring it to the second device, sometimes even wiping the contents of the first device as specified.
When creating copies of the initial data, a hard drive duplicator can provide cloned data to more than twenty destinations at a time. Typically, duplicators work on their own without needing to connect to a computer and most copy the information on the hard drive sector by sector. In other words, the duplicate copies include every sector of the initial hard drive, even those that do not contain data. However, depending on your needs, you may also procure a duplicator with a “fast copy” feature, used to copy only sectors of the original drive that contain data, making the cloning process faster. Powerful and efficient, hard drive duplicators are great options for preventing data loss.
There are countless hard drive duplicators available on the market, ranging in size, price, and performance. As such, there are a few factors to consider when determining which one to procure. First, if you intend to use your duplicator frequently and to make many copies at once, it is wise to invest in an industrial grade duplicator with higher performance capabilities, as the higher price will be offset by how they save you time. Second, you should consider the compatibility of your devices with each hard drive to ensure it can work with your devices and their storage capacities. Next, you should consider the features your duplicator might be equipped with and if any benefit you, such as disk wiping or multiple copying methods. Last, consider the quality of the device and the connection options it offers. While less important, these factors may contribute to your decision of one model over another.
For any and all hard drive duplicators you wish to procure, allow ASAP IT Technology to be your trusted sourcing partner. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we are a leading online distributor of such components and many others, all of which we source reliably from trusted manufacturers on our Approved Vendor List (AVL). We encourage you to explore our website as you see fit for all of the high-caliber part types you need for your applications. Then, simply submit a Request for Quote (RFQ) form with as much information as possible to receive a competitive quote within 15 minutes or less for your comparisons. With around-the clock service, rapid lead times, and cost savings, find out why customers rely on ASAP IT Technology again and again!

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The terms firmware and hardware are both widely used in the tech world today, so having basic knowledge of each category of technology will greatly improve your ability to understand the applications of each in modern devices. In this blog, we will cover the need-to-know defining qualities of both firmware and hardware, and the circumstances in which each is used.
First, hardware comprises all of the mechanical units that are integrated within a device which must be programmed to function properly. Hardware such as processors, motherboards, memory drives, flash drives, disks, sound cards, and input/output devices on a computer or electronic gadgets all require external operation. To work properly, one must develop an appropriate program. Programming should be understood as an arrangement of guidelines which the workstation follows in order to play out its operations. Countless devices in our daily life rely on hardware that has been programmed for specific functions. One common example of hardware we use on a day-to-day basis is MS-Word, or Microsoft Word, that of which is a program used to deal with words, and its capacity depends on an arrangement of guidelines that determine the best way to process electronically typed words. The program operates on a form of hardware like a computer, and the working system summons diverse projects to perform particular undertakings. All projects carried out by this hardware are coded in programming languages like C or Java.
Meanwhile, firmware is a specific type of programming used to operate hardware. In particular, firmware is responsible for picking up any task by the numerous processors of a device, and this programming is joined into a ROM (Read Only Memory). As a bundle of programmed functions, firmware can be understood as a code that works specifically for a certain hardware. Often, firmware typically only works on binary coding. Examples of firmware include BIOS in an IBM-Compatible PC, timing and control mechanisms in washing machines, and sound and video controlling attributes in modern televisions.
In summary, hardware are physical components of technology, while firmware are specific sets of programs used to instruct hardware on how to function. Unlike firmware, hardware can undergo physical damage, so it is important to maintain such products with proper care like keeping them dry and free from contaminants. Hardware relies on programs to run, and it can be reprogrammed to operate differently according to the user’s desires. Meanwhile, firmware is one type of programming that can be used for your hardware, but it rarely requires reprogramming, and often functions to only code for one specific set of directions indefinitely. 
Understanding technology can be confusing, as there are constant advances being made in the field, and not all inventions are physical; however, gaining basic knowledge on some of the most widely used forms of technology makes understanding complex devices exponentially easier. By learning the defining characteristics of hardware and firmware, one can better grasp the roles each plays in powering our daily devices. When you are in the market for reliable parts for industrial technology, look no further than ASAP IT Technology!
Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we are a leading online purchasing platform for high-caliber telecommunications equipment and items for similar applications. Quality is the cornerstone of our operations, so we are proudly an AS9120B, ISO 9001:2015, and FAA AC 00-56B accredited enterprise, and we follow a strict No China Sourcing pledge. We invite you to browse our ever-expanding inventory of new, used, obsolete, and hard-to-find items until you settle on a part you wish to procure. Then, kick-start the process when you submit an RFQ form through our Instant Quote service. Through this service, we guarantee custom quotes within 15 minutes or less. For further inquiries or one-on-one assistance, contact us at any time via phone or email.   

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If you are unfamiliar with the construction of computers and the various types of hardware they rely on to function, it can be somewhat difficult to effectively shop for parts needed for assembly, replacement, or upgrades. Two types of computer hardware that may get mixed up is RAM and ROM, due to their similar acronyms and roles. While both devices are used for memory storage, their capabilities differ, making it necessary to have a clear understanding of their differences. In this blog, we will discuss RAM modules and ROM modules in more detail, ensuring that you choose the correct type for your individual needs.
RAM, or Random Access Memory, is a type of memory device that is able to temporarily store information and code that is under execution, not to be confused with secondary storage devices like Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) that permanently store programs, documents, and other forms of data. As a form of volatile device, RAM can only hold memory for as long as it is receiving power. Modern computers generally use one of two types of RAM, those of which include dynamic RAM (DRAM) and static RAM (SRAM). SRAM is the more powerful option, executing reading and writing with increased speed and less power than DRAM, allowing it to act as cache memory. DRAM, meanwhile, is cheaper to produce despite still boasting rapid speeds, making it more widely used in various computer systems. Both forms of RAM are volatile and act as the main memory of a computer.
ROM, or Read-Only Memory, meaning that it is used to store data that will not require frequent modification. Generally, the data on this device is installed after manufacturing and is often unchangeable. If one wants to erase the data on their ROM device, they can take advantage of what is known as erasable programmable read-only memory or electrically erasable programmable read-only memory, or EPROM and EEPROM respectively. ROM modules are most commonly used for the start-up process of a computer, storing the data that is needed to run initial programs for booting. Other devices such as graphics cards, CD drives, and more may also utilize ROM for their functions. Unlike RAM, ROM is a permanent medium of storage that is non-volatile, meaning that it will retain its data without being provided power.
As ROM and RAM serve different purposes, they feature different speeds and capabilities. RAM is much quicker than ROM, allowing it to run programs and switch between tasks in a rapid fashion. RAM can also write data much quicker, allowing it to be used for normal operations. Despite this, ROM is used for the startup process of the computer, meaning that it does not require the power of RAM for it to be effective. As a result, the two should not be compared against one another, but knowing their differences can help you purchase the right part for your needs.
When you are in search of top-quality computer hardware that you can steadily depend on, look no further than ASAP IT Technology. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we conduct business with AS9120B, ISO 9001:2015, and FAA AC 00-56B accreditation. Take the time to explore our expansive set of offerings as you see fit, and our team is always ready to assist you with competitive quotes and rapid lead times on items of interest. To receive a quote, fill out and submit an RFQ form as provided on our website at your earliest convenience, and a team member of ours will personally reach out to you with a customized solution based on your needs in just 15 minutes or less. See why customers continuously rely on ASAP IT Technology today when you kick-start procurement.

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Smart card readers have witnessed a surge in prevalence due to the corresponding spike in smart card usage shortly after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Contactless tap-and-pay cards were introduced in the pandemic's aftermath as viable alternatives to data processing in the healthcare, BFSI, and transportation sectors. Smart card readers go by various names such as card terminals, card acceptance devices (CAD), smart card programmers, and interface devices. Smart card readers that support ISO 15693, ISO 14443, and ISO 7816-3 protocols can be categorized under contact, contactless, and interface types. They ensure secure and streamlined communication between cards and their related network services. Thus, to better understand the growing applications of smart card readers, this blog will shed light on the usage of USB connections in particular as a subcategory of smart card readers.

What Is a Smart Card?

A smart card is available in plastic or metal, shaped similar to a driver's license, and contains an integrated chip to serve as a security token. They can be read by contact (aka the chip-and-dip method) or near-field communication methods, such as radio-frequency identification (RFID), and others. The embedded integrated chip (ICC) within smart cards can store vast amounts of data, along with other on-card processing functions such as encryption, authentication, and manipulation of stored data. In addition, smart cards are available in many tamper-resistant modules such as fobs, plastic cards, subscriber index modules (SIMs), etc.

A Brief History of the Smart Card Market

Robert Moreno patented the first memory card in 1974, and in 1977, SGS Thomson, Bull CP8, and Schlumberger started manufacturing smart cards on a commercial scale. Today, the smart card market is worth nearly 13.9 billion USD, with 50 billion smart cards in active circulation, according to a research report by MarketsAndMarkets. The report also predicts the industry's growth to a projected estimate of16.9 billion USD at a CAGR of 4% by 2026. In light of impressive growth forecasts, the smart card industry is categorized under geography (Latin America, Europe, North America, the Middle East & Africa, and the Asia Pacific) and end-user verticals (government, IT & telecommunications, BFSI, and transportation). Due to their increasing reliance on blockchain and other newly-emerging modes of information technology, Asia Pacific countries are expected to drive the growing demand for smart cards in the next decade. Some key smart card manufacturers are expected to be CPI Card Group, HID Global Corporation, Thales Group, and IDEMIA.

What Is a USB Smart Card Reader?

In the 1990s, USB connections were an improvement over earlier modes of data transfer in computers, removing the need for additional cables and screws. In addition, USB connections simplified peripheral connections to computers. USB smart card readers fall under "interface" type readers, and they work like a scanner for transferring electronically stored data from a smart card into a computer via a USB connection. Most USB smart card readers available today are easy to install and are compatible with several computer operating systems.
USB smart card connections are highly secure, versatile, and economical. Some USB smart card readers use a two-way authentication pathway for high-speed data transmission through biometric data recognition. Typical applications of such smart card readers include security authentication, digital signatures, and ISO/IEC 7816 applications such as cryptographic storage of contact information. Other applications also include e-banking, e-payments, and e-government services.

Chip Card Interface Device and USB Smart Card Readers

The Chip Card Interface Device (CCID) protocol is a standard USB protocol that enables the connection of a smart card to a computer using a USB interface. CCID protocols remove the requirement for individual smart card manufacturers to establish their respective protocols for the USB interface. Thus, CCID-enabled USB smart cards can be used for data encryption and security authentication across a variety of USB smart card readers. CCID devices are available in various forms, such as a standard USB dongle containing an SD or SIM card or a PC USB keyboard with a slot for additional SD cards. Some popular features of CCID-USB devices include their compatibility with both RTOS and non-RTOS-based systems, as well as HCC USB host controllers and pcsc-lite API functions.
When a CCID is connected to its host via a USB interface, it communicates with the host using CCID-specific messages. Such messages are composed of a 10-byte header and message-specific data. Meanwhile, the host may or may not have an ICC inserted, whereas the CCID is designed to assume that the host device is possibly ICC compatible. Therefore, a "slot change" interrupt message appears on one’s display screen when the ICC fails to connect with the host.

To Conclude

If you are looking for a USB smart card reader for your unique needs, then ASAP IT Technology is here to assist you in your pursuit. We are a proud member of the ASAP Semiconductor family of websites, and we bolster an online database of over 2 billion products where entities can easily streamline IT electronic parts, aerospace and defense components, and more. Moreover, our dedicated customer service team and Instant RFQ service ensure that you always experience a smooth buying experience with us. Submit your RFQ today, and a market representative will respond to your quote within 15 minutes or less, 24/7x365.

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When it comes to computer memory, customers are often inundated with several options, such as RAM, ROM, PROM, and others. This often sparks confusion as to which is the best for their personal application. One such source of confusion is the difference between RAM and VRAM, which are often erroneously used interchangeably. Some customers may wonder which of the two is optimal, but they are necessarily different and should be approached with nuance. In this blog, we will discuss the differences between these two modalities, while also discussing implementation for end users.
RAM is a necessary form of memory storage found on every computing device. An acronym for random-access memory, RAM is a functional memory store that helps the computer perform tasks quickly. RAM is much faster than a computer hard drive, so when the user begins using a program, data is loaded from the hard drive to the RAM, allowing for rapid integration. However, this storage form is temporary, and after the active portion of the task is completed, information must be restored to the device's hard drive for long-term access. Since RAM is erased when the computer is off, a sudden loss of power may cause certain files to be lost.
Video Random Access Memory, or VRAM, helps the CPU and display optimally render images. While most image rendering may be completed without the aid of VRAM, visually-intensive programs such as those found in gaming, modeling, and microscopy, rely upon this buffering component heavily. VRAM is homologous to RAM, but its associated device is the GPU instead of the CPU. Storing pixels and graphics data in bitmaps for rapid use, VRAM is necessary to rapidly produce robust images. While other computer components may be readily upgraded with ease, VRAM cannot be individually removed; therefore, the user must replace the GPU as a whole to increase its performance.
Of the several differences between RAM and VRAM, the biggest comes from the type of information that they store. While RAM is general and may be used to facilitate the processing of any type of computer program, VRAM is specialized to aid in function with the GPU. Another distinction is the ability for each memory type to be upgraded. While RAM may be directly upgraded to a maximum amount, VRAM cannot. Additionally, VRAM exists in close physical proximity to its processor to better aid in its function, whereas RAM may be more widespread and less localized.
As you can tell, it is hard to compare these two memory modalities because they are very different in their function. While VRAM may seem like an enticing product to upgrade along with a GPU, the day-to-day tasks performed on a computer are still more affected by the amount of RAM present. If you are working with graphically-dense applications, such as those previously listed, it is crucial to check the minimum VRAM recommendations to ensure optimal performance. If you are in the market for RAM, GPU upgrades, or any other computing elements, there is no better alternative to ASAP IT Technology.
As a leading distributor of IT Hardware, we carry millions of ready-to-purchase items for a multitude of architectures and applications. Whether you are searching for a new, obsolete, or hard-to-find product, our team members can help you find it and provide you with a quick competitive quote. To begin, simply fill out an Instant RFQ form as found on any product page and hit submit. After receiving your request, our account managers will immediately begin working on crafting a customized solution, and will return it within 15 minutes or less. After experiencing the ASAP difference, you will never look back.

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Computers depend on hard disk drives (HDDs) to permanently store critical data. They serve as storage devices that save digital information that can be retrieved for future reference. HDDs are considered non-volatile since they retain data even when they are not connected to a power source, keeping stored information safe and intact.

Data is stored or retrieved in a random-access manner, rather than in a sequential access. This means that blocks of data can be accessed at any point without going through other data blocks. HDDs can be grouped into five types, those of which include parallel advanced technology attachments (PATAs), serial ATA (SATA) storage drives, small computer system interface (SCSI) drives, solid state drives (SSDs), and NVMe drives.
Parallel Advanced Technology Attachments
Serving as the first types of hard disk drives, they made use of the Parallel ATA interface standard to connect to computers. Often referred to as Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) and Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) drives, they were first introduced by Western Digital and Compaq in 1986. At the time, they provided a common drive interface technology for connecting hard drives and other related devices to computers.
Their data transfer rate is up to 133MB/s, and a maximum of 2 devices can be connected to a single drive channel. As most motherboards are equipped with two channels, four EIDE devices can be connected internally. They utilize 40 or 80 wire ribbon cables to transfer numerous bits of data simultaneously in parallel. Furthermore, these drives have the ability to store data via magnetism.
Serial ATA Storage Drives
These storage devices quickly replaced PATA drives in desktop and laptop computers, with the main difference between the two being the interface. In 2000, SATA surfaced as an alternative to the earlier PATA interface. Not only do they have a reduced cable size and cost, they offer native hot swapping, faster data transfer via higher signaling rates, and more efficient transfer through an I/O queuing protocol. Nonetheless, their method of connecting to a computer is the same.
Small Computer System Interface Drives
Similar to IDE hard drives with the exception that they utilize a Small Computer System Interface to connect to a computer, SCSI is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. These standards outline commands & protocols for electrical, optical, and logical interfaces. In addition, SCSI drives can be connected internally or externally. Keep in mind that devices connected in a SCSI must be terminated at the end. Some of the advantages of SCSI drives include their high transfer speed, reliability, as well as their wide range of salability and flexibility.
Solid State Drives
This type of hard disk drive is the latest in drive technology as it does not consist of any moving parts like its counterparts. They also do not store data using magnetism; rather, they use flash memory technology. That being said, they utilize integrated circuits or semiconductor devices to store information permanently. SSDs offer many advantages, some of which include faster data access, increased durability, and less power usage.
NVMe Drives
Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) is a storage interface that ensures data is not lost even when a computer reboots or loses power. The term “Express” refers to the fact that that data travels over the PCI Express (PCIe) interface located on a computer’s motherboard, providing a more direct connection as a result. More than that, they utilize 4 PCIe lanes, offering a max speed of 3.9 Gbps (3,940 Mbps).
ASAP IT Technology is a premier distributor of hard disk drives, external hard drives, and storage components, all of which can be found in our easy to navigate database. Our inventory consists of high quality HDDs from top manufacturers like Axiom Memory Solutions, Citrix Systems, HP, Nutanix, Cisco Memory, and other leading entities. Kickoff the procurement process with a competitive quote and see how ASAP IT Technology can fulfill your operational requirements.

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NAND flash is a type of non-volatile storage technology that does not necessitate power to retain data. For example, a mobile phone has NAND flash, though it is often called a memory chip, whereas data files like photos, videos, and music are stored on a microSD card. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of these small-scale devices that can store immense amounts of information, allowing you to better understand the magnitude of their capabilities. 
NAND flash can be found in countless applications including modern smartphones, televisions, computers, and tablets. Other uses include traffic lights, digital advertising panels, and passenger announcement systems and displays. As such, they are available in different grades, those being industrial and consumer variations. It is important to note that there are many differences between an industrial- and consumer-grade NAND, each varying in reliability, endurance, compliance, and total cost of ownership (TCO).
For devices equipped with NAND flash, these components offer mechanical shock resistance, increased durability, and can handle high pressures and temperatures. Unlike a hard disk drive, NAND flash does not have any moving parts, making them a suitable option for systems that vibrate and shake. Furthermore, NAND flash also offers fast read access times which is critical when processing a lot of data.
Data that is stored on NAND flash is represented by electrical charges that are deposited in each NAND cell. There are two cell types, those of which are Single-Level Cell (SLC) and Multi-Level Cell (MLC) NANDs. The major difference between each level is how many bits each NAND cell can store at one time. While a SLC NAND can only store 1 bit of data per cell, a 2-bit MLC NAND has the ability to store 2 bits of data per cell. 
There is also a 3-bit MLC NAND that stores 3 bits of data per cell, and it is often referred to as either a Triple-Level Cell (TLC) or a Quadruple-Level Cell (QLC). It is important to note that the fewer bits per cell, the smaller the capacity of the NAND. However, data can be written and retrieved faster, and the NAND chip exhibits a higher endurance level. That being said, a SLC NAND is fastest and has the highest endurance, but has lower capacities, ranging up to 64GB.

Though each cell level offers varying advantages, NAND flash has a number of limitations. First, NAND has a limited number of read/write cycles in a specific block. Once a device reaches the user, its first day of operations offers optimal performance. In fact, NAND failure is inevitable once the program erase cycle limit is reached. Another limitation of NAND flash is that individual cells fail and overall performance diminishes over time.

As wear-out is common in many electrical components, NAND flash is no exception. When the NAND fails, the device is rendered useless, resulting in the loss of data and a reduction in application functionality. The best way to ensure NAND flash is working optimally is to understand your data usage and the limitations of your specific type of NAND. Doing so can protect your data and applications. 
If you find yourself in need of NAND flash, flash memory devices, EEPROM, or other storage components, look no further than ASAP IT Technology. ASAP IT Technology stocks top memory storage components by leading entities like Intel, Samsung, Fujitsu Siemens, Micron Technology, Sandisk, and more. Initiate the procurement process with a competitive quote and see how ASAP IT Technology can serve as your strategic sourcing partner. For additional questions, call or email us at any time; we are available 24/7x365!

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When managing and operating numerous electrical devices and systems, one will also have to deal with a plethora of cables, connectors, and other electrical components that keep them functioning. Due to the importance of cables in terms of power and signal transfer, they should be handled with care to promote an ease of maintenance, identification, and safety. Without proper cable management, cables can quickly become tangled and unplugged, and damage can occur depending on the severity of the issue. As such, one should familiarize themselves with proper cable management, and the various products that promote it.
One of the most simplistic ways to enhance cable management in a cabinet or installation is to utilize labeling. Labeling can be done through color coding or written tags, and such systems may be used to group related cable types, voltage levels, or more. For grouping, cable ties, lacing, rubber bands, or other such products may be used, or cables may be run through cable guides or can be affixed to walls. As some cables may be constrained in their ability to fit into a cabinet or installation, implementing labeling early can reduce the amount of stress you may later have if you need to increase the amount of cables in the assembly.
Many cables are sensitive to mechanical strain, that of which can cause them to break down and lose performance or functionality. To prevent such issues, cable strain relief components should be implemented for cables, wires, conduits, and hoses. Strain reliefs are often plastic or metal, and they clamp onto lines so that the amount of stress induced as a result of bends is minimized. Cable ties can also reduce mechanical stress as well, and they serve as a cost-effective solution for large bundles of cabling. When electrical lines are terminated at a socket or port, strain relief is generally a requirement so that the connector is not unplugged or ripped out by accident. Depending on the application, the required strain relief component may differ in its type and placement.
While a majority of cable management is executed in a cabinet or within a system, there are still many benefits to managing the cables that must go across open spaces. For instance, business offices and furniture are often designed with cable management in mind, some desks featuring holes for cables to be run through to reduce the amount of visible wiring. Additionally, dropped ceilings and raised floors also allow for cables to be efficiently routed as required in a space, all while enabling an ease of maintenance. With proper routing and organization, systems and devices can be connected as needed, all while reducing tripping hazards, disorganization, and more.
Once you have established the type of cables you will need to manage, the amount of bundles you have, and the space you require, it will then be time to begin procuring the various management parts you need. With cable harnesses, cable locks, cable entry systems, cable trays, cable glands, and cable grommets all serving as common options, the choice should depend on the amount of organization you desire and the types of cables present in an assembly. At ASAP IT Technology, we serve as a one-stop shop for all cable management hardware that you need, offering a plethora of products with competitive pricing and rapid lead times.
ASAP IT Hardware is a leading distributor of electronic components and cable management solutions, offering products from the likes of C2G, Emerson Network Power, Steren Electronics, American Power Conversion Corp, and Star Micronics. With AS9120B, ISO 9001:2015, and FAA AC 00-56B accreditation, alongside a strict NO CHINA SOURCING pledge, we stand by the quality and caliber of our offerings. If you find particular items on our website that you are interested in, first begin with a quote for your comparisons which you may receive through the submission of an RFQ form as provided on our website. Once we receive a completed form, a dedicated account manager will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less to continue the process.

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If you have ever used a microphone to give a presentation, it was likely linked with a speaker or some other amplification device. Many assume that this setup is the only way in which a microphone can function. However, microphones can operate independently of any loudspeaker or such devices. In this blog, we will discuss the mechanism by which microphones can transmit data without an external playback system.
At the most basic level, a microphone is a device that is able to convert sound waves into electrical signals using a vocal diaphragm and transducer. Individual microphones will vary in design past the level of the diaphragm, with some containing additional transistors and transformers. In addition, depending on a particular component's need for power, a microphone can be labeled as either passive or active.
Similarly, loudspeakers and other output devices can function independently of a microphone. These devices convert electrical signals into sound waves which travel through the air and eventually enter a consumer's ear. With both descriptions laid out, one may notice that speakers have an inverse function to a microphone.
When these two devices are used together, as is usually the case, the microphone is linked to the output device by a cable or wireless transmitter. As the signal propagates through the line, it is amplified by the output device to increase its intensity. Between the input and output devices, several additional components can be added to further modulate the signal and are thus explained:
1. Microphone Preamp: This device is used to boost the low output from the microphone into a signal that is compatible with the external amplification equipment. Higher-end preamps perform additional functions such as lessening distortion and increasing gain.
2. Analog-To-Digital Converter: Since microphones naturally produce an analog output, analog-to-digital converters must be equipped to change the signal to digital.
3. Digital Mixing Console: These consoles are commonly employed in professional settings to combine, equalize, and modulate other characteristics of multiple sound channels before the signals move on. These robust tools can be used to modify real-time or recorded inputs.
4. Power Amplifiers: The last step before the microphone input reaches the loudspeaker is the power amplifier. These devices increase the magnitude of the input signal to be above the needed output threshold. Power amplifiers must convert input signals into a variety of different outputs. For example, the required signal power for devices such as headphones is in the milliwatts, whereas home theater systems may require up to several kilowatts of power to properly function.
Wireless microphones work using similar principles, but without the need for certain intermediate components. In these audio systems, the electrical signal from the microphone passes through the transmitter and is converted to a radio or infrared light wave. These waves travel through the air before being picked up by a receiver on the output device. Typically, wireless microphones and receivers are sold as a package because most are not interchangeable.
As you can see, both microphones and output devices can function independently of each other. If you are in the market for high-quality audio recording equipment or other electronic components, look no further than ASAP IT Technology. As a leading distributor of aviation, NSN, and IT hardware, we offer customers direct access to an inventory of over 2 billion ready-to-purchase components. Additionally, we leverage our market expertise and global supply chain to bring customers competitive pricing and rapid lead times. If you are facing a time constraint and need your parts quickly, you can depend upon our robust network of distribution centers which enables us to offer expedited shipping on all orders. Submit an RFQ through our website today to learn how ASAP IT Technology can serve as your strategic sourcing partner.

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Whether for entertainment, education, or other purposes, projection screens are quite useful for displaying projected images for an audience. Projection screen equipment may be portable or permanent in installation, while others may even take advantage of inflatable screens for outdoor events. The screen that is used for projection will often differ depending on the application and environment, materials and designs being set to enhance how light is diffusely reflected.
For projection screens that are used for movie theaters, reflective screens are used, such materials either being aluminized or a white surface containing small glass beads. As projection screen accessories such as speakers and subwoofers are placed directly behind the assembly, evenly spaced holes are situated across the screen itself. Home theaters are fairly similar in geometry, often coming in the form of rigid wall-mounted screens or pull-down screens. Pull-down screens are quite beneficial for spaces where there is not enough space for a permanent installation, and such equipment is commonly produced with painted fabric.
In some instances, an electric screen may be used. These types are often situated on a wall, ceiling, or recessed within a ceiling. While typically being large in size, some may be available for home theater use. Often, these screens are raised and lowered with the use of electric motors that are controlled by a remote control or wall-mounted switch. Sometimes, the electric screen may even be automatic in deployment and retraction, operating when the projector itself is turned on or off.
Beyond such types, another common variation is the mobile screen. Generally, such equipment will come in the form of a pull-down screen placed on a free stand or a pull-up screen placed on a weighted base. Typically, such options are best when there is no wall or ceiling that the projector can feasibly be attached to. Alongside permanently installed pull-down screens, both types may either be tensioned or not tensioned. Non-tensioned screens often face the downside of constant movement if there is a current present, causing the image to be imperfect.
As visuals are simply projected onto the screen, rather than sourcing from the screen itself, as would be the case with a TV, image brightness and contrast will be dependent on ambient light conditions, the luminous power of the project, and the size of the projected image itself. Often, the larger a screen is, the less luminous the image will be when there is ambient light. To promote a clearer and higher quality image, the room should be kept as dark as possible. Furthermore, screen surfaces that direct light back at the source can also be beneficial. 
If a flat screen with high reflection is used, such equipment may suffer from hot spots where a brighter image is displayed in one area. High gain screens also suffer from a reduced viewing angle, meaning that one needs to be very selective on which screen they choose and where it will be placed. After narrowing down the various needs that you have for your particular projection applications, let the experts at ASAP IT Technology help you source all you require.
ASAP IT Technology is your sourcing solution for all the projector screen equipment and projector screen accessories you require, offering a plethora of top quality components from leading manufacturers such as Epson, Acer, Sony Corporation, and Hitachi Electronics. As you peruse our vast offerings, you may request quotes at any time through the submission of a completed RFQ form through our website. With team members always available for customers 24/7x365, responses will be given in just 15 minutes or less from the receipt of a completed form.

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